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By | May 20, 2020 | 1,051 views

Electromagnetic field measurements in 5G: Overview and concepts (part 1)

What is different about 5G NR from a technology perspective? In layer 1, it is the heavy use of beamforming and frequencies above 3 GHz. Beamforming is used to overcome the increased path loss, especially at 3 GHz and above. However, beamforming and frequencies above 3 GHz have raised a large number of discussions among the population, especially about electromagnetic…

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By | August 3, 2017 | 8,875 views

PIM testing: Best practices in a nutshell

When it comes to PIM testing, the necessary steps to identify passive intermodulation (PIM) and locate its source are similar to interference hunting. In the end, PIM is an internal source of interference and can have a significant impact on network performance. Before starting with PIM measurements, however, it is recommended to test return loss. The PIM analyzer transmits high power;…

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By | January 12, 2017 | 2,347 views

Identifying passive intermodulation

Passive intermodulation is nothing new. It has been an issue since the first commercial networks. In GSM, for example, whenever a PIM issue was present, network operators could easily re-allocate frequencies without affecting the service. With 3G and 4G, however, frequency re-allocation is no longer possible. PIM problems have to be dealt with. They have become even more important as…

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By | December 18, 2016 | 1,874 views

Suspecting PIM issues in your network? Let us help you find the root cause

More subscribers and higher data rates translate into a constant strain on networks, no matter where. But what could have happened when technicians are notified of low performance yet cannot find any defective components at the BTS site? The answer may be: passive intermodulation, or PIM. And, the source of this PIM problem could be a tiny metal flake in…

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